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Hi there
In this video we are going to be looking at the phonetic chart. I am Colin Munro and this is the English Language
Club. At first it looks like a meaningless collection
of symbols. But each symbol represents a different sound. In spoken form, most of the English language
can be broken down into 44 separate sounds. The phonetic chart shows us how these sounds
relate to each other. There are three sections to the chart. Single Vowels or Monophthongs in Green Diphthongs in Red and the Consonants in Blue The first section is single vowel
sounds. These are also sometimes called monophthongs. When we think about the alphabet we normally
think of there being 5 vowels A, E, I, O, U. However, there are many ways that these letters are pronounced, so the pronunciation is very inconsistent. This makes things difficult when learning
English especially as in many other languages the vowels sounds are pronounced more consistently
with how they they are spelled. On the top row we have the sounds /I/, /ɪ/, /ʊ/ and /uː/ With all these sounds the mouth is almost
closed and the sound is made at the top of the mouth. That is why they are on the top row. On the second row we have the sounds /e/, /ə/, /ɜː/ and /ɔː/ Now the mouth is open a little more and it
feels like the sounds comes straight out through the middle of the mouth. That is why they are on the middle row. On the bottom row we have the sounds /æ/, /ʌ/, /ɑː/ and /ɒ/ To make these sounds our mouths should be
almost wide open and it feels like the sound is coming from the bottom of the mouth. That is why they are on the bottom row. The columns are also important because they
give us an idea of the position of the tongue. With the left column the tongue is at the
front. /iː/, /e/, /æ/ moving back a little /ɪ/, /ə/, and /ʌ/ Back a little more /ʊ/, /ɜː/, /ɑː/ And now finally at the back
/uː/, /ɔː/, /ɒ/ The second section is the diphthongs, on our
charts that is the section in red. Diphthongs are also vowel sounds, but they are combinations of two vowel sounds
that appear together within the same syllable producing a new unique sound. They’re arranged according to the second
sound. In the first column we have the /ə/ sounds /ɪə/, /ʊə/ and /eə/ In the second column we have the /ɪ/ sounds. We should note that the symbols for these
diphthongs are written with the /ɪ/ symbol but the sound is often the longer but similar
/i:/. /eɪ/, /ɔɪ/, and /aɪ/ And in the third column we have the /ʊ/
symbol. Again sometimes the sound is more similar
to the longer /uː/. /əʊ/ and /aʊ/ The third section is the consonant sounds, The first 2 rows are sometimes called consonant
pairs. This is because the sounds of each pair are
produced in a very similar way. Lets look at the first pair. /p/ and /b/. The sound is similar but the physical shape
of mouth is almost exactly the same. The only difference is /b/ is voiced which means that we use our vocal chords to produce the sound. If you feel you neck when you say the sound you should feel some vibration. Now if you say /p/, if you say it correctly
you will not feel that vibration. The same is true of the next pair /t/, and /d/. /d/ is voiced and /t/ isn’t. And /ʧ/ and /ʤ/ /k/ and /g/ /f/ and /v/ /θ/ and /ð/ /s/ and /z/ /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ Finally in the bottom row we have the single
consonants /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ /h/ /l/ /r/ /w/ /j/ So you can see now, that the phonetic chart
is not just a random collection of symbols but useful tool learning correct pronunciation. For an even more detailed explanation of one
of the sections, click on one of the annotations on the left
of the screen. We have also produced an interactive chart
using YouTube’s annotations. So you can click on a symbol and it will jump
to the part of the video that play that sound. So you can listen over and over to the sounds
you want to study. Remember you can have online classes with
me or one of our other teachers. Check out our website for details. You can also find us on Twitter, Facebook,
and Skype. If you have any questions or comments please
get in touch, we are here to help you.

Reynold King

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